Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction (Part 1)
The link between cigarette smoking and ED is not clearly understood. The MMAS sample did not show a significant difference in cases of ED between current smokers and nonsmokers. However, the association of ED with certain risk factors was greatly amplified in current smokers. According to MMAS data analysis, the age-adjusted probability of complete ED in subjects treated for heart disease was 56% for current smokers compared to 21% for nonsmokers. Furthermore, the Vietnam Experience Study found that the prevalence of ED was 1.5-fold greater in current smokers copared to non-smokers. A cross-sectional study conducted in Italy comparing nonsmokers and current smokers and exsmokers in 2010 men older than age 18 yr presented an odds ratio of ED of 1.7 and 1.6, respectively. The study also showed that the risk of developing ED is influ-enced by smoking and that the duration of the habit increases this risk.